Geoffrey Brian Golding

Department of Biology, McMaster University Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, L8S 4K1

Tel: (905-525-9140-ext 24829) FAX: (905-522-6066) e-mail: Golding@McMaster.CA
(last modified Aug 2014).

PERSONAL INFORMATION Born July 5, 1953 Canadian citizenship Married (with two wonderful children) EDUCATION/WORK EXPERIENCE 1996- McMaster University, Hamilton Ont. Professor 1992-1996 McMaster University, Hamilton Ont. Associate Professor 1988-1992 York University, North York Ont. Associate Professor 1984-1992 York University, North York Ont. University Research Fellow 1982-1984 Natl. Inst. Env. Health Sciences, North Carolina Postdoctoral Research 1977-1982 University of Alberta, Edmonton Alta. Ph.D. in Genetics 1976-1977 McMaster University, Hamilton Ont. Technician and course in Pop. Genetics 1976 Brock University, St. Catharines Ont. Technician in Biology 1975 Dalhousie University, Halifax N.S. Research Assistant in Biology 1972-1976 Dalhousie University, Halifax N.S. B.Sc. in Biology RESEARCH INTERESTS DNA sequence analysis Genome evolution Population genetics - Spontaneous mutation - Natural selection TEACHING INTERESTS Population Genetics and Biology Evolutionary Biology Genetics PUBLICATIONS PAPERS Lenz, C., W. Haerty, G.B. Golding, 2014. Increased substitution rates surrounding low-complexity regions within primate proteins. Genome Biol Evol. 6:655-665. Abstract Carviel, J.L., D.C. Wilson, M. Isaacs, P. Carella, V. Catana, B. Golding, E.A. Weretilnyk, R.K. Cameron, 2014. Investigation of Intercellular Salicylic Acid Accumulation during Compatible and Incompatible Arabidopsis- Pseudomonas syringae Interactions Using a Fast Neutron-Generated Mutant Allele of EDS5 Identified by Genetic Mapping and Whole-Genome Sequencing. PLoS ONE 9(3): e88608. Abstract Porter, T., J. Gibson, S. Shokralla, D. Baird, G.B. Golding, M. Hajibabaei, 2014. Rapid and accurate taxonomic classification of insect (Class Insecta) +cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA barcode sequences using a naïve Bayesian classifier. Mol. Ecol. Res., doi: 10.1111/1755-0998.12240 Wagner, D.M., J. Klunk, M. Harbeck, A. Devault, N. Waglechner, J.W. Sahl, J. Enk, D.N. Birdsell, M. Kuch, C. Lumibao, D. Poinar, T. Pearson, M. Fourment, B. Golding, J.M. Riehm, D.J.D. Earn, S. DeWitte, J-M. Rouillard, G. Grupe, I. Wiechmann, J.B. Bliska, P.S. Keim, H.C. Scholz, E.C. Holmes, H. Poinar, 2014 The Plague of Justinian was caused by a 'dead-end' emergence of Yersinia pestis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 14:319-326. Abstract Huang, Y. and G.B. Golding 2013. Phylogenetic Gaussian Process Model for the Inference of Functionally Important Regions in Protein Tertiary Structures. PLoS Computational Biology, 10(1):e1003429. Abstract Whelan, F.J., N. Yap, M.G. Surette, G.B. Golding, D.M.E. Bowdish, 2013. A guide to bioinformatics for immunologists. Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity, 4:416. Abstract Devault, A.M., G.B. Golding, N. Waglechner, J. Enk, M. Kuch, J.H. Tien, M. Shi, D.N. Fisman, A.N. Dhody, S. Forrest, K. Bos, D.J.D. Earn, E.C. Homes, and H.N. Poinar, 2013. Second-Pandemic Strain of Vibrio cholerae from the Philadelphia Cholera Outbreak of 1849. New England J. Medicine, 370: 334-340. Abstract Champigny, M.J., W.L. Sung, V. Catana, R. Salwan, P.S. Summers, S.A. Dudley, N.J. Provart, R.K. Cameron, G.B. Golding, E.A. Weretilnyk, 2013. RNA-Seq effectively monitors gene expression in Thellungiella salsuginea plants growing in an extreme natural habitat and in controlled growth cabinet conditions. BMC Genomics, 14:578 Abstract Porter, T.M., G.B. Golding, C. King, D. Froese, G. Zazula, H.N. Poinar, 2013. Amplicon pyrosequencing late Pleistocene permafrost: the removal of putative contaminant sequences and small-scale reproducibility. Molecular Ecology Resources 13: 798-810 Abstract Ilie, L., H. Mohamadi, G.B. Golding, W.F. Smyth, 2013. BOND: Basic OligoNucleotide Design. BMC Bioinformatics 14: 69 Abstract Whelan, F.J., C.J. Meehan, G.B. Golding, B.J. McConkey, D.M. Bowdish, 2012. The evolution of the class A scavenger receptors. BMC Evolutionary Biology 12:227 Abstract Guevara, D.R., M.J.Champigny, A.Tattersal, J.Dedrick, C.E.Wong, Y.Li, A.Labbe, C.L.Ping, Y.Wang, P.Nuin, G.B.Golding, B.E.McCarry, P.S.Summers, B.A.Moffatt, E.A.Weretilnyk, 2012. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of Yukon Thellungiella plants grown in cabinets and their natural habitat show phenotypic plasticity. BMC Plant Biology 12:175 Abstract Lou,M. and G.B.Golding 2012. The effect of sampling from subdivided populations population substructure on species identification with DNA barcodes using a Bayesian statistical approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65:765-773. Porter,T. and G.B.Golding 2012. Factors That Affect Large Subunit Ribosomal DNA Amplicon Sequencing Studies of Fungal Communities: Classification Method Primer Choice and Error. PLoS ONE 7(4): e35749. doi: Y.Huang and G.B.Golding 2012. Inferring Sequence Regions under Functional Divergence in Duplicate Genes. Bioinformatics 28:176-183. K.I.Bos, V.J.Schuenemann, G.B.Golding, H.Burbano, N.Waglechner, B.K.Coombes, J.B.McPhee, S.N.DeWitte, M.Meyer, S.Schmedes, J.Wood, D.J.D.Earn, D.A.Herring, P.Bauer, H.N.Poinar, J.Krause 2011. A draft genome of Yersinia pestis from victims of the Black Death. Nature 478:506-510. Errata 2011 480:278. A.M.MacLean, W.Haerty, G.B.Golding, T.M.Finan 2011. LysR-type PcaQ protein regulates expression of a protocatechuate-inducible ABC-type transport system in Sinorhizobium meliloti Microbiology 157: 2522-2533. Porter,T. and G.B.Golding 2011. Are similarity or phylogenetic-based methods more appropriate for classifying internal transcribed spacer (ITS) metagenomic amplicons? New Phytologist 192: 775-782. V.M. D'Costa, C.E. King, L. Kalan, M. Morar, W. Sung, C. Schwarz, D. Froese, G. Zazula, F. Calmels, R. Debruyne, G.B. Golding, H.N. Poinar, G.D. Wright 2011. Antibiotic Resistance is Ancient. Nature 477: 457-461. Haerty,W. and G.B.Golding 2011. Increased polymorphism near low complexity sequences across the genomes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates. Genome Biol.Evol. 3: 539-550. Sun,S., B.J.Evans and G.B.Golding 2011. Patchy-tachy leads to false positives for recombination. Mol.Biol.Evol. 28: 2549-2459. Lunzer,M., G.B.Golding and A.M.Dean 2011. Pervasive cryptic epsistasis in molecular evolution. PLoS Genetics 6:e1001162. Haerty,W. and G.B.Golding 2010. Low complexity sequences and single amino acid repeats: Not just "junk" peptide sequences. Genome 53:753-762. Hao,W. and G.B.Golding 2010. Inferring bacterial genome flux while considering truncated genes. Genetics 186: 411-426. doi:10.1534/genetics.110.118448 Haerty, W. and G.B. Golding 2010. Genome-wide evidence for selection acting on single amino acid repeats. Genome Research 20: 755-760. doi:10.1101/gr.101246.109 Abstract Lou, M. and G.B. Golding 2010. Assigning sequences to species in the absence of large interspecific differences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56:187-194 Abstract Albu*, M., X.J. Min*, G.B. Golding and D. Hickey 2009. Nucleotide substitution bias within the genus Drosophila affects the pattern of proteome evolution. Genome Biol Evol 2009:288-293. * joint first authors. Abstract Hao, W. and G.B. Golding 2009. Does gene translocation accelerate the evolution of laterally transferred genes? Genetics 182: 1365-1375. ( Abstract Haerty, W. and G.B. Golding 2009. Similar selective factors affect both between gene and between exon divergence in Drosophila. Mol. Biol. Evol. 26: 859-66. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msp006 Abstract Albu, M., X.J. Min, D. Hickey, and G.B. Golding 2008. Uncorrected nucleotide bias in mtDNA can mimic the effects of positive Darwinian selection. Mol. Biol. Evol. 25: 2521-2524. Abstract Hao, W. and G.B. Golding 2008. High rates of lateral gene transfer are not due to false diagnosis of gene absence. Gene 421: 27-31 ( Abstract Hao, W. and G.B. Golding 2008. Uncovering Rate Variation of Lateral Gene Transfer during Bacterial Genome Evolution. BMC Genomics 9:235 (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-9-235). Abstract Marri, P.R. and G.B. Golding 2008. Gene Amelioration Demonstrated: The Journey of Nascent Genes in Bacteria. Genome 51:164-168. Abstract Lou, M. and G.B. Golding 2007. Fingerprint: Visual depiction of variation in multiple sequence alignments. Molecular Ecology Notes 7:908-914. Christodoulakis, M., G.B. Golding, C.S. Iliopoulos, Y.J. Ardila, W.F. Smyth 2007. Efficient algorithms for counting and reporting segregating sites in genomic sequences. J. Computational Biology 14:1001-1010. Abstract Higgs, P., Hao, W. and G.B. Golding 2007. Identificalton of conflicting selective effects on highly expressed genes. Evolutionary Bioinformatics 2: 1-13. Abstract Abdo, Z. and G.B. Golding 2007. A Step Toward Barcoding Life: A Model Based, Decision Theoretic Method to Assign Genes to Pre-existing Species Groups. Systematic Biology 56: 44-56. Abstract Cowie, A., Cheng, J., Sibley, C.D., Fong, Y., Zaheer, R., Patten, C.L., Morton, R.M., Golding, G.B., and T.M. Finan. 2006. An Integrated Approach to Functional Genomics: Construction of a Novel Reporter Gene Fusion Library of Sinorhizobium meliloti. Appl Environ Microbiology 72:7156-7167. Abstract Marri, P.R., J.P. Bannantine, and G.B. Golding, 2006. Comparative genomics of metabolic pathways in Mycobacterium species: gene duplication, gene decay and lateral gene transfer. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 30: 906-925. Abstract Marri*, P.R. Hao*, W. and G.B. Golding 2006. Gene Gain and Gene Loss in Streptococcus: Is it Driven by Habitat? Mol. Biol. Evol. 23: 2379-2391, * joint first authors. Abstract Marri*, P.R. Hao*, W. and G.B. Golding 2006. Adaptive evolution: The role of laterally transferred genes in adaptive evolution. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7:s8 * joint first authors. Huntley, M.A. and G.B. Golding 2006. Selection and slippage creating serine homopolymers. Mol. Biol. Evol. 23: 2017-2025. Abstract Hao, W. and G.B. Golding 2006. The fate of laterally transferred genes: Life in the fast lane to adaptation or death. Genome Research 16: 636-643. Abstract Wong, C.E., Y. Li, A. Labbe, D. Guevara, P. Nuin, B. Whitty, C. Diaz, G.B. Golding, G.R. Gray, E.A. Weretilnyk, M. Griffith, and B.A. Moffatt, 2006. Transcriptional Profiling Implicates Novel Interactions Between Abiotic Stress and Hormonal Responses in Thellungiella, a Close Relative of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology, 140:1437-1450. Abstract Marri, P.R., J.P. Bannantine, M.L. Paustian and G.B. Golding, 2006. Lateral Gene Transfer in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 52:560-569. Abstract Hao, W. and G.B. Golding 2006. Asymmetrical Evolution of Cytochrome bd Subunits. J. Mol. Evol. 62:132-142. Abstract C.E. Wong, Y. Li, B.R. Whitty, C. D1az-Camino, S.R. Akhter, J.E. Brandle, G.B. Golding, E.A. Weretilnyk, B.A. Moffatt and M. Griffith, 2005. Expressed sequence tags from the Yukon ecotype of Thellungiella reveal that gene expression in response to cold, drought and salinity shows little overlap. Plant Molecular Biology 58:561-574. Abstract Reprint. G. Zhu, G.B. Golding and A.M. Dean, 2005. Towards reconstructing an ancient adaptive event. Science 307:1279-1282. Abstract Reprint. Huntley, M., S. Mahmood and G.B. Golding, 2005. Simple sequence in proteins. Genome 48: 291-301. Abstract. Huntley, M. and G.B. Golding, 2004. Neurological proteins are not enriched for repetitive sequences. Genetics 166: 1141-1154. Abstract Reprint. Hao, W. and G.B. Golding, 2004. Patterns of bacterial gene movement. Mol. Biol. Evol. 21: 1294-1307. Abstract Reprint. Fellingham, J.S., T.A. Thing, N. Vythilingum, A. Keuroghlian, D. Bruno, G.B. Golding, and R.E. Pearlman, 2003. A non-LTR retrotransposon family is restricted to the germ-line micronucleus in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. Eukaryotic Cell 3: 157-169. Abstract Wong, K. and G.B. Golding, 2003. A phylogenetic analysis of the pSymB replicon from the Sinorhizobium meliloti genome reveals a complex evolutionary history. Can. J. of Microbiol. 49: 269-280. Abstract. Wong,K., T.M. Finan, and G.B. Golding, 2002. Dinucleotide compositional analysis of Sinorhizobium meliloti using the genome signature: distinguishing chromosomes and plasmids. Functional and Integrative Genomics 2: 274-281. Abstract Reprint. Dean, A.M., C. Neuhauser, E. Grenier and G.B. Golding, 2002. The pattern of amino acid replacements in alpha/beta-barrels. Mol. Biol. Evol. 19: 1846-1864. Abstract Reprint. Golding, G.B. 2002. Reconstructing the prior probabilities of allelic phylogenies. Genetics 161: 889-896. Abstract Reprint. MacLellan, S.R., C.D. Sibley, B. Golding and T.M. Finan, 2002. The 1683 KB replicon of Sinorhizobium meliloti: past and present investigations into the nature of a very large bacterial plasmid. Pp. 41-45 in Nitrogen Fixation: Global Perspectives, ed. T.M. Finan, M.R. O'Brian, D.B. Layzell, J.K. Vessey, and W. Newton. CABI Publishing, New York. Huntley, M.A. and G.B. Golding, 2002. Simple sequences are rare in the Protein Data Bank. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Genetics 48:134-140. Abstract Reprint. Finan, T.M., S. Weidner, K. Wong, J. Buhrmester, P. Chain, F.J. Vorholter, I. Hernandez-Lucas, A. Becker, A. Cowie, J. Gouzy, B. Golding and A. Puhler, 2001. The complete sequence of the 1,683 kilobase pSymB megaplasmid from the N2-fixing endosymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 9889-9894. Abstract Reprint. Galibert, F., T.M. Finan, S.R. Long, A. Puhler, P. Abola, F. Ampe, F.Barloy-Hubler, M.J. Barnett, A. Becker, P. Boistard, G. Bothe, M.Boutry, L. Bowser, J. Buhrmester, E. Cadieu, D. Capela, P. Chain, A.Cowie, R.W. Davis, S. Dreano, N.A. Federspiel, R.F. Fisher, S.Gloux, T. Godrie, A. Goffeau, B. Golding, J. Gouzy, M. Gurjal, I.Hernandez-Lucas, A. Hong, L. Huizar, R.W. Hyman, T. Jones, D. Kahn, M.L. Kahn, S. Kalman, D.H. Keating, E. Kiss, C. Komp, V. Lelaure, D.Masuy, C. Palm, M.C. Peck, T.M. Pohl, D. Portetelle, B. Purnelle, U.Ramsperger, R. Surzycki, P. Thebault, M. Vandenbol, F.-J. Vorholter, S.Weidner, D.H. Wells, K. Wong, K.-C. Yeh, and J. Batut, 2001. The composite genome of the legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti. Science 293: 668-672. Abstract Reprint. Koski, L.B. and G.B. Golding, 2001. The closest BLAST hit is often not the nearest neighbor. J. Mol. Evol. 52: 540-542. Abstract Reprint. Koski, L.B., R.A. Morton, and G.B. Golding, 2001. Codon bias and base composition are poor indicators of horizontally transferred genes. Mol.Biol.Evol. 18: 404-412. Abstract Reprint. Chain, P., A. Cowrie, I. Hernandez-Lucas, G.B. Golding, and T.M. Finan, 2000. oriT-Directed Cloning of Defined Large Regions from Bacterial Genomes: Identification of the Sinorhizobium meliloti pExo Megaplasmid Replicator Region. Journal of Bacteriology 182: 5486-5495. Abstract. Huntley, M. and G.B. Golding, 2000. Evolution of simple sequence in proteins. J. Mol. Evol. 51: 131-140. Abstract. Dean, A.M. and G.B. Golding, 2000. Enzyme evolution explained (sort of). pp 6-17 in Pacific Symposia on Biocomputing in Protein Evolution and Structural Genomics. World Scientific Publ. Co. Reprint. Gray, M.W., G. Burger, R. Cedergren, G.B. Golding, C. Lemieux, D. Sankoff, M. Turmel, and B.F. Lang, 1999. A genomics approach to mitochondrial evolution. Biological Bulletin 196, 400-403. Golding, G.B. 1999. Simple sequence is abundant in eukaryotic proteins. Protein Science 8: 1358-1361. Abstract. Riberio, S. and Golding, G.B. 1998. The mosaic nature of the eukaryotic nucleus. Mol. Biol. Evol. 15: 779-788. Abstract. Golding, G.B., and A.M. Dean, 1998. The structural basis of molecular adaptation. Mol. Biol. Evol. 15: 355-369. Abstract. Gray, M.W., B.F. Lang, R. Cedergren, G.B. Golding, C. Lemieux, D. Sankoff, M. Turmel, N. Brossard, E. Delage, T.G. Littlejohn, I. Plante, P. Rioux, D. Saint-Louis, Y. Zhu and G. Burger, 1998. Genome structure and gene content in protist mitochondrial DNAs. Nucleic Acids Research 26: 865-878. Abstract. Hartmann, M., and G.B. Golding, 1998. Searching for substitution rate heterogeneity in sequences. Mol. Phylo. Evol. 9: 64-71. Abstract. Berke, T. G.B. Golding, X. Jiang, D.W. Cubitt, M. Wolfaardt, A.W. Smith, D.O. Matson, 1997. Phylogenetic analysis of the caliciviruses. J. Medical Virology 52: 419-424. Abstract. Lang, B.F., G. Burger, C.J. O'Kelly, R. Cedergren, G.B. Golding, C. Lemieux, D. Sankoff, M. Turmel, and M.W. Gray, 1997. An ancestral mitochondrial DNA resembling a eubacterial genome in miniature. Nature 387: 493-496. Abstract. Dean, A.M. and G.B. Golding, 1997. Protein engineering reveals ancient adaptive substitutions in isocitrate dehydrogenase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 3104-3109. Abstract. Fieldhouse, D., F. Yazdani, and G.B. Golding, 1997. Substitution rate variation in closely related rodent species. Heredity 78: 21-31. Abstract. Golding, G.B. 1997. The effect of purifying selection on genealogies. Pp 271-285 in Progress in Population Genetics and Human Evolution, ed. P. Donnelly & S. Tavare, IMA Volumes in Mathematics and its Applications, Vol. 87, Springer, New York. Fieldhouse, D., and G.B. Golding, 1996. Evolutionary rate variation within Mus APRT. Genome 39: 909-913. Abstract. Golding, G.B. 1996. When was life's first branch point? Current Biology 6: 679-682. Abstract. Gupta, R.S. and G.B. Golding, 1996. The origin of the eukaryotic cell. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 21: 166-171. Abstract. Matson, D.O., T. Berke, M.B. Dinulos, S.E. Poet, W-M. Zhong, X.M. Dai, X. Jiang, G.B. Golding, and A.W. Smith, 1996. Partial characterization of the Genome of Nine Animal Caliciviruses. Archives of Virology, 141: 2443-2456. Abstract. Golding, G.B. and Gupta, R.S. 1995. Protein based phylogenies support a chimeric origin for the eukaryotic genome. Mol. Biol. Evol. 12:1-6. Abstract. Gupta, R.S., Golding, G.B. and Singh, B. 1994. HSP70 Phylogeny and the relationship between archaebacteria, eubacteria and eukaryotes. J. Mol. Evolution 39: 537-540. Golding, G.B. 1994. Exploratory Analysis of Multiple Sequence Alignments Using Phylogenies. CABIOS 10: 243-247. Abstract. Golding, G.B., Tsao, N. and Pearlman, R.E. 1994. Evidence for intron capture: An unusual path For The Evolution of Proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 7506-7509. Abstract. Golding, G.B. 1994. Using maximum likelihood to infer selection from phylogenies. Pp 126-139 in Non-neutral evolution: Theories and Molecular Data, ed. G.B.Golding, Chapman & Hall, Inc., NY. Golding, G.B. 1994. Non-neutral evolution: Theories and Molecular Data, Chapman & Hall, Inc., NY. Fieldhouse, D. and Golding, G.B. 1993. The rat APRT sequence shows evolutionary rate variation among exons in rodents. Genome 36: 1107-1110. Abstract. Gupta, R.S. and Golding, G.B. 1993. Evolution of HSP70 Gene and Its Implications Regarding Relationships Between Archaebacteria, Eubacteria and Eukaryotes. J. Mol. Evolution 37: 573-582. Abstract. Hudson, J.W., G.B.Golding, and M.M.Crerar. 1993. Evolution of allosteric control in glycogen phosphorylase. J. Mol. Biology 234: 700-721. Abstract. Golding, G.B. 1993. Maximum likelihood estimates of selection coefficients from DNA sequence data. Evolution 47: 1420-1431. Golding, G.B. 1992. Estimating selection coefficients from the phylogenetic history of DNA sequences. in Paleo-molecular Population Genetics. ed. N.Takahata and J.F.Crow, Japan Science Press. Golding, G.B. 1992. The prospects for polymorphisms shared between species. Heredity, 68: 263-276. Abstract. Vohra, G.B., G.B. Golding, N.Tsao, and R.E. Pearlman. 1992. A phylogenetic analysis based on the gene encoding phosphoglycerate kinase. J. Mol. Evol. 34: 383-395. Abstract. Fieldhouse, D., and G.B. Golding. 1991. A source of small repeats in genomic DNA. Genetics 129: 563-572. Abstract. Golding, G.B., and J. Felsenstein. 1990. A maximum likelihood approach to the detection of selection from a phylogeny. Journal of Molecular Evolution 31: 511-523. Abstract. Tillier, E.R.M., and G.B. Golding. 1989. Homozygosity of selected alleles in subdivided populations. Theoretical Population Biology 36:59-76. Crerar, M.M., J.W. Hudson, K.E. Matthews, E.S. David and G.B. Golding. 1988. Studies on the expression and evolution of the glycogen phosphorylase gene family in the rat. Genome 30: 582-590. Abstract. Golding, G.B. 1988. Somatic immunoglobulin sequence divergence and its implications for studies of evolutionary divergence. Genome 30: 341-346. Abstract. Tillier, E.R.M., and G.B. Golding. 1988. A sampling theory of selectively neutral alleles in a subdivided population. Genetics 119: 721-737. Abstract. Golding, G.B. 1987. Nonrandom patterns of mutation are reflected in evolutionary divergence and may cause some of the unusual patterns observed in sequences. Pp. 151-172, in Genetic Constraints on Adaptive Evolution, ed. V. Loeschcke. Springer-Verlag, New York. Golding, G.B. 1987. Multiple substitutions create biased estimates of divergence times and small increases in the variance to mean ratio. Heredity 58:331- 339. Abstract. Golding, G.B., P.J. Gearhart and B.W. Glickman. 1987. Patterns of somatic mutations in immunoglobulin variable genes. Genetics 115: 169-176. Abstract. Golding, G.B. 1987. The detection of deleterious selection using ancestors inferred from a phylogenetic history. Genet. Res. (Camb.) 49: 71-82. Golding, G.B., and B.W. Glickman. 1986. Evidence for local DNA influences on patterns of substitutions in the human a-interferon gene family. Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 28: 483-496. Abstract. Golding, G.B., C.F. Aquadro and C.H. Langley. 1986. Sequence evolution within populations under multiple types of mutation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 427-431. Abstract. Golding, G.B., and B.W. Glickman. 1985. Sequence directed mutagenesis: Evidence from a phylogenetic history of human a-interferon genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 8577-8581. Abstract. Hudson, R.R., and G.B. Golding. 1984. Variance of Sequence Divergence. Molecular Biology and Evolution 1: 439-441. Golding, G.B. 1984. The sampling distribution of linkage disequilibrium. Genetics 108: 257-274. Abstract. Golding, G.B. 1983. Estimates of sequence divergence: An examination of some assumptions. Molecular Biology and Evolution 1: 125-142. Abstract. Golding, G.B., and C. Strobeck. 1983. Two-locus, fourth-order gene frequency moments: Implications for the variance of squared linkage disequilibrium and the variance of homozygosity. Theoretical Population Biology 24: 173-191. Golding, G.B., and C. Strobeck. 1983. Variance and covariance of homozygosity in a structured population. Genetics 104: 513-529. Abstract. Strobeck, C., and G.B. Golding. 1983. The variance of linkage disequilibrium between three loci in a finite population. Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 25: 139-145. Abstract. Golding, G.B., and C. Strobeck. 1983. Increased number of alleles found in hybrid populations due to intragenic recombination. Evolution 37: 17-29. Golding, G.B., and C. Strobeck. 1982. Expected frequencies of codon use as a function of mutation rates and codon fitnesses. Journal of Molecular Evol. 18: 379-386. Abstract. Golding, G.B., and C. Strobeck. 1982. The distribution of nucleotide site differences between two finite sequences. Theoretical Population Biology 22: 96-107. Abstract. Golding, G.B., and C. Strobeck. 1980. Linkage disequilibrium in a finite population that is partially selfing. Genetics 94: 777-789. Abstract. Davidson, D., and G.B. Golding. 1978. Differential behaviour of sister nuclei in methylxanthine-induced binucleate cells. Experimental Cell Research 116: 450-454. Davidson, D., G.B. Golding, and S.W. Armstrong. 1978. Increases in nuclear volume and cell size in meristematic cells arrested by 5-aminouracil. Protoplasma 96: 47-57. Zouros, E., G.B. Golding, and T.F.C. MacKay. 1977. The effect of combining alleles into electrophoretic classes on detecting linkage disequilibrium. Genetics 85: 543-550. Abstract. REPORTS Tracey, M., S.T. Nemeth, S.A. Espinet, and G.B. Golding. 1976. Population size, growth rate and other studies of crayfish in southern Ontario. Report to the Ontario Ministry of the Environment.